The not-so-secret ingredient: Stadis 450 (dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid, barium salt)

by on Feb.16, 2009, under What are they?

DRAFT FEB 09 – Please check for latest revision.

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The most commonly used commercial turbine jet fuels today are named JET-A, JET-A1, and JET-B. All of these are kerosene type fuels except JET-B which is a kerosene-naphtha blend for colder climates [1, 2]. JET-A is used internationally and JET-A1 is available only in the US. The US military primarily uses its own kerosene jet fuel, JP-8, which is similar to JET-A1 [11, 2].

A number of chemical additives are used in these fuels including corrosion inhibitors, temperature stabilizers, detergents, and static electricity dissipators. Static dissipators are of particular importance to atmospheric aerosol and environmental research, due to their metal content and their widespread use in commercial and military jet fuel [17, 8]. Octel Starreon Stadis® 450 is a static dissipator, comprised of dinonylnapthalene sulfonic acid and other organic solvents, and according to the product MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet), it contains two “trade secret” ingredients [18]. Stadis 450 is the only approved anti-static additive for use in Air Force aviation fuels, including JP-8, JP-5, JET-A1, and JET-B [9]. DuPont, the original manufacturer, reports having divested its production of Stadis 450 in September of 1994 to Octel Starreon LLC , now a subsidiary of Innospec Fuel Specialties. Innospec also manufactures another static dissipator additive called Statsafe®. However, according to Exxon Mobil, Stadis 450 continues to be the static dissipator of choice for commercial and military aviation [17].

… static dissipator additive is widely used in jet kerosene …. Stadis® 450 is the only additive currently manufactured for use in aviation turbine fuels approved by the major turbine and airframe manufacturers.

Although the “trade secret” ingredients are well protected by the manufacturer, a recent study contracted by the EPA [10] and other sources strongly imply that these ingredients are salts of barium and/or calcium. The EPA classifies this dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid, barium salt as a “HPV” (High Production Volume) chemical, meaning it is “produced or imported into the United States in quantities of 1 million pounds or more per year [12].” This same study reports that “Based on the available toxicity results, dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid, barium salt appears to be the most biologically active member of the [dinonylnaphthalene] category [10].”

It is hypothesized that jet exhaust aerosol [4] is responsible for cloud seeding, rainbow diffraction, and dichroism observed in persistent contrails [5]. While “skeptics” may dismiss the very existence of persistent contrails, the phenomenon is widespread and commonly accepted among atmospheric scientists [7]. The exact cause of aerosol cloud seeding has been the subject of endless debate, but it has been shown conclusively that the earth’s albedo, or its overall reflectivity, is increased by contrail aerosol (see sattelite imagery category).

In the 3 days after the attacks on Sept. 11, 2001 during which the FAA grounded all commercial aircraft in the US, a unique opportunity to study atmospheric aerosol presented itself. David J. Travis, University of Wisconsin found significant changes in surface temperature and presented his findings to the American Meteorological Society [6].

There are a number of byproducts of combustion of kerosene jet fuel and its additives, including water, carbon dioxide, soot, sulfuric and nitrous acid, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, and metal ions [3], although this is by no means a complete list. Carbon monoxide and aromatic hydrocarbons also result from incomplete combustion.

Aerosol and contrail formation processes in an aircraft plume and wake as a function of plume age and temperature [4].

Aerosol and contrail formation processes in an aircraft plume and wake as a function of plume age and temperature. (image courtesy GRID-Arendal)

Not surprisingly, UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) only makes casual mention of these metal particles, and fails to provide any information as to their role in atmospheric aerosol formation.

If one phenomenon gives away the presence of metals in the aerosol, it would be the large number of high altitude rainbows produced by contrail aerosol. Virtually unheard of prior to 1990, bright rainbows, sometimes referred to as “circumhorizon arcs” or more commonly, “chembows,” can be observed regularly wherever jet aircraft fly.

According to a patent issued to Hughes Aircraft Company for dispersing metallic aerosol into the stratosphere, particles may stay suspended for up to a year. Hughes Aircraft, a major US defense contractor [14, 15], has been bought and sold by other defense contractors such as Boeing and Raytheon in recent years.

Exeprt from United States Patent 5003186:

The particles may be seeded by dispersal from seeding aircraft; one exemplary technique may be via the jet fuel as suggested by prior work regarding the metallic particles. Once the tiny particles have been dispersed into the atmosphere, the particles may remain in suspension for up to one year.

To avoid making qualitative judgments, I will not belabor the point that the horizon has been consistently gray, anywhere near commercial airports, since at least the early 1990s. But it would appear that the metal aerosol is indeed being dispersed, and staying suspended. While corporate media generally claims there can be no further debate about climate change, there are thousands of respected scientists who dispute the notion that atmospheric CO2 is the primary cause, and take exception to the idea that human intervention is required to “correct” it. At least 400 of them have testified to this effect to the US Senate [16].

Critical thinkers must question whether, with such flimsy scientific evidence, controlling the climate is the true motivation behind this metal aerosol dispersal. A 10 mile thick blanket of metal aerosol may have other uses to the militaries of the world, particularly in the fields of surveillance, aircraft and missile guidance, radar ducting, and radio frequency weapons systems.


  3. GRID-Arendal in collaboration with United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
  8. DETAIL SPECIFICATION, TURBINE FUEL, AVIATION, KEROSENE TYPE, JP-8 (NATO F-34), NATO F-35, and JP-8+100 (NATO F-37) [pdf]. U.S. Army. Downloaded from
  9. AEF Fuels Management Pocket Guide [pdf]. U.S. Air Force. Downloaded from
  10. High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program Test Plan and Data Review, Dinonylnaphthalene Category [pdf].
  13. PermitApplicationReports200808-Marathon_Stadis_450.pdf Source:
  14. Hughes Aircraft Company
  16. Over 400 Prominent Scientists Disputed Man-Made Global Warming Claims in 2007. From
  17. Exxon Mobil World Jet Fuel Specifications with Avgas Supplement. From:
  18. Octel Starreon Stadis 450 MSDS
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4 comments for this entry:
  1. Brad

    Great Research

  2. John A. Kaspar

    First paragraph, second sentence is oposite. Jet-A is exclusive to US, Jet- A1 is international.

  3. Costa Conn

    The Stadis 450 MSDS you have as a reference says nothing about barium or aluminium, the CAS No. in the MSDS is for the acid, NOT Ba or Al salts.

  4. qbit

    metal salts are not listed with the dinonylnapthalene sulphonic acid, but what about:


    As a matter of fact, I’m very glad you brought this up. I just found a patent for “radiopaque barium polymer complexes” which lends itself even further to the notion that barium dispersal could be related to RF surveillance or weapons. “Radiopaque” means it absorbs ionizing radiation, generally RF/microwave. Barium sulphate is used as an absorbing dye for CT scans in medicine.

    United States Patent 4866132

    Novel radiopaque barium polymer complexes, compositions of matter and articles prepared therefrom

    Radiopaque polymeric materials comprising halogenated barium salts, homogeneously distributed at the molecular level, provide permanent, nonleachable radiopacities at least equivalent to pure aluminum without adversely affecting mechanical or physical properties of compositions in which they are employed.

    So, if you have anything to add to this, feel free. I know this doesn’t prove anything. I’ve had no luck finding a sample of stadis 450 for testing.

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