Tag: climate change
Mainstream science accepts that trails from jet aircraft are lingering for hours, but claims it is a natural phenomenon
Paul Joseph Watson
Friday, July 2, 2010
Scientists now admit that emissions from aircraft are forming artificial clouds that block out the sun, precisely what geoengineering advocates like top eugenicist and White House science advisor John P. Holdren have called for, but the article tries to insinuate that the effect is caused by natural “vapours,” when in reality it can be attributed to chemtrails that contain substances harmful to humans.
“The phenomenon occurs when aircraft fly above 25,000ft, where the air temperature is around minus 30C. This causes water vapour emitted by the engines to crystallise and form the familiar white streaks across the sky, known as contrails,” writes Oliver Tree for the Daily Mail.
“Reading University’s Professor Keith Shine, an expert in clouds, said that those formed by aircraft fumes could linger ‘for hours’, depriving those areas under busy flight paths, such as London and the Home Counties, of summer sunshine.”
“Experts have warned that, as a result, the amount of sunlight hitting the ground could be reduced by as much as ten per cent. Professor Shine added: “Over the busiest areas in London and the South of England, this high-level cloud could cover the sky, turning bright sunshine into hazy conditions for the entire area. I expect the effects will get worse as the volume of air traffic increases.”
The report also makes reference to a 2009 Met Office study which found that high-level winds did not disperse contrails that later formed into clouds which covered an astonishing 20,000 miles.
Of course, this is no natural phenomenon as the article claims. Ten years ago, contrails from jet aircraft disappeared within minutes, yet apparently we are led to believe that the same substance is now causing the trails to linger for hours and form into clouds. This is impossible without something within the substance having been changed.
Mainstream science and academia has gone from dismissing chemtrails as a fantasy of paranoid conspiracy theorists to now accepting that they exist but claiming that they are natural and not artificially induced.
In reality, chemtrails are the consequence of the agenda to geoengineer the earth in the name of combating climate change, a science vehemently backed by people like John P. Holdren, who in his 1977 book Ecoscience advocated poisoning the water supply to involuntarily sterilize humans as part of a “planetary regime” that would control every aspect of our existence. The fact that such eugenicists are now in control of geoengineering programs that will have a direct impact on our health is alarming.
Geoengineering programs have also been promoted by the Council on Foreign Relations, which is one of the main steering committees behind the implementation of global governance.
A recent report issued by the UK government also calls for the UN to exclusively regulate world wide geoengineering of the planet in order to stave off man made global warming.
Discussion of geoengineering technology is often framed as a future consideration, yet governments are already conducting such programs at an advanced stage.
The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Science and managed by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research.
One of ARM’s programs, entitled Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), is aimed at measuring “cloud simulations” and “aerosol retrievals”.
Another program under the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Science Program is directed towards, “developing comprehensive understanding of the atmospheric processes that control the transport, transformation, and fate of energy related trace chemicals and particulate matter.”
The DOE website states that, “The current focus of the program is aerosol radiative forcing of climate: aerosol formation and evolution and aerosol properties that affect direct and indirect influences on climate and climate change.”
U.S. government scientists are already bombarding the skies with the acid-rain causing pollutant sulphur dioxide in an attempt to fight global warming by “geo-engineering” the planet, despite the fact that injecting aerosols into the upper atmosphere carries with it a host of both known and unknown dangers.
The proposal to disperse sulphur dioxide in an attempt to reflect sunlight was discussed in a September 2008 London Guardian article entitled, Geoengineering: The radical ideas to combat global warming, in which Ken Caldeira, a leading climate scientist based at the Carnegie Institution in Stanford, California, promoted the idea of injecting the atmosphere with aerosols.
“One approach is to insert “scatterers” into the stratosphere,” states the article. “Caldeira cites an idea to deploy jumbo jets into the upper atmosphere and deposit clouds of tiny particles there, such as sulphur dioxide. Dispersing around 1m tonnes of sulphur dioxide per year across 10m square kilometres of the atmosphere would be enough to reflect away sufficient amounts of sunlight.”
Experiments similar to Caldeira’s proposal are already being carried out by U.S. government -backed scientists, such as those at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Savannah River National Laboratory in Aiken, S.C, who last year began conducting studies which involved shooting huge amounts of particulate matter, in this case “porous-walled glass microspheres,” into the stratosphere.
The project is closely tied to an idea by Nobel Prize winner Paul Crutzen, who “proposed sending aircraft 747s to dump huge quantities of sulfur particles into the far-reaches of the stratosphere to cool down the atmosphere.”
Such programs merely scratch the surface of what is likely to be a gargantuan and overarching black-budget funded project to geo-engineer the planet, with little or no care for the unknown environmental consequences this could engender.
What is known about what happens when the environment is loaded with sulphur dioxide is bad enough, since the compound is the main component of acid rain, which according to the EPA “Causes acidification of lakes and streams and contributes to the damage of trees at high elevations (for example, red spruce trees above 2,000 feet) and many sensitive forest soils. In addition, acid rain accelerates the decay of building materials and paints, including irreplaceable buildings, statues, and sculptures that are part of our nation’s cultural heritage.”
The health effects of bombarding the skies with sulphur dioxide alone are enough to raise serious questions about whether such programs should even be allowed to proceed.
The following health effects are linked with exposure to sulphur.
- Neurological effects and behavioral changes
- Disturbance of blood circulation
- Heart damage
- Effects on eyes and eyesight
- Reproductive failure
- Damage to immune systems
- Stomach and gastrointestinal disorder
- Damage to liver and kidney functions
- Hearing defects
- Disturbance of the hormonal metabolism
- Dermatological effects
- Suffocation and lung embolism
According to the LennTech website, “Laboratory tests with test animals have indicated that sulfur can cause serious vascular damage in veins of the brains, the heart and the kidneys. These tests have also indicated that certain forms of sulfur can cause foetal damage and congenital effects. Mothers can even carry sulfur poisoning over to their children through mother milk. Finally, sulfur can damage the internal enzyme systems of animals.”
Fred Singer, president of the Science Environmental Policy Project and a skeptic of man-made global warming theories, warns that the consequences of tinkering with the planet’s delicate eco-system could have far-reaching dangers.
“If you do this on a continuous basis, you would depress the ozone layer and cause all kinds of other problems that people would rather avoid,” said Singer.
Even Greenpeace’s chief UK scientist – a staunch advocate of the man-made global warming explanation – Doug Parr has slammed attempts to geo-engineer the planet as “outlandish” and “dangerous”.
Stephen Schneider of Stanford University, who recently proposed a bizarre plan to send spaceships into the upper atmosphere that would be used to block out the Sun, admits that geo-engineering could cause “conflicts between nations if geoengineering projects go wrong.”
Given all the immediate dangers associated with bombarding the atmosphere with sulphur dioxide, along with the unknown dangers of other geo-engineering projects, many people are concerned that “chemtrails” are a secret component of the same agenda to alter the Earth’s eco-system.
The fact that chemtrails are blocking out the sun, which is precisely what the geoengineering advocates call for, strongly indicates that they are an integral part of this dangerous and wide-reaching program.
This graphic proposes, “Spraying aluminum powder and barium oxide into high levels of the atmosphere, again delivered by aircraft, to increase planetary reflectance (albedo) and cloud cover.” High levels of barium have been found in substances associated with chemtrails.
Reports of chemtrails, jet plumes emitted from planes that hang in the air for hours and do not dissipate, often blanketing the sky in criss-cross patterns, have increased dramatically over the last 10 years. Many have speculated that they are part of a government program to alter climate, inoculate humans against certain pathogens, or even to toxify humans as part of a population reduction agenda.
In conducting Google searches, one finds discussion, such as this example, of using sulphur dioxide as a jet fuel additive to be dispersed over the world during routine commercial flights.
“I suggest that both the sulphur dioxide and the silica particles could be delivered into the stratosphere by dissolving an additive in jet aviation fuel,” writes engineer John Gorman, who has conducted experiments to test the feasibility of such a scenario.
“We would want to burn fuel containing the additive specifically when the aircraft was cruising in the lower stratosphere,” he adds.
In 2008, a KSLA news investigation found that a substance that fell to earth from a high altitude chemtrail contained high levels of Barium (6.8 ppm) and Lead (8.2 ppm) as well as trace amounts of other chemicals including arsenic, chromium, cadmium, selenium and silver. Of these, all but one are metals, some are toxic while several are rarely or never found in nature.
The newscast focuses on Barium, which its research shows is a “hallmark of chemtrails.” KSLA found Barium levels in its samples at 6.8 ppm or “more than six times the toxic level set by the EPA.” The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality confirmed that the high levels of Barium were “very unusual,” but commented that “proving the source was a whole other matter” in its discussion with KSLA.
KSLA also asked Mark Ryan, Director of the Poison Control Center, about the effects of Barium on the human body. Ryan commented that “short term exposure can lead to anything from stomach to chest pains and that long term exposure causes blood pressure problems.” The Poison Control Center further reported that long-term exposure, as with any harmful substance, would contribute to weakening the immune system, which many speculate is the purpose of such man-made chemical trails.
Indeed, barium oxide has cropped up repeatedly as a contaminant from suspected geoengineering experimentation.
KSLA also put aerosolized-chemical testing in its historical context, citing a voluminous number of unclassified tests exposed in 1977 Senate hearings. The tests included experimenting with biochemical compounds on the public. KSLA reports that “239 populated areas were contaminated with biological agents between 1949 and 1969.”
One of the accepted truisms of scientific study is the fact that if scientists are proposing an idea, then those scientists with access to the bottomless pit of black-budget secret government funding are already doing it.
It is highly likely that chemtrails are merely one manifestation of “geo-engineering” that is taking place without proper debate, notification or any form of legality, and with a callous disregard for the potential dangers to both our health and our environment.
Arrogant scientists and Obama administration should recall the story of the old lady who swallowed a fly.
Pea-brained, arrogant Obama administration scientists recommend spewing more pollution into the atmosphere to “solve global warming.”
Wouldn’t it make more sense to invest the money in alternative energy production and/or install better scrubbers on all coal/gas smokestacks? It would be orders of magnitude more efficient to catch the pollution at the source rather than to try to sequester it from the atmosphere once its already been released and dispersed.
Please keep in mind, co2 makes up a fraciton of 1% of our atmosphere
By the way there’s snow on the ground right now outside my office, and its April.
Regardless this new proposed aerosol dispersal is a terrible idea just as the secret aerosol chemtrail program is.
. . .
WASHINGTON (AP) — Obama looks at “climate engineering”
The president’s new science adviser said Wednesday that global warming is so dire, the Obama administration is discussing radical technologies to cool Earth’s air.
John Holdren told The Associated Press in his first interview since being confirmed last month that the idea of geoengineering the climate is being discussed. One such extreme option includes shooting pollution particles into the upper atmosphere to reflect the sun’s rays. Holdren said such an experimental measure would only be used as a last resort.
“It’s got to be looked at,” he said. “We don’t have the luxury of taking any approach off the table.”
Holdren outlined several “tipping points” involving global warming that could be fast approaching. Once such milestones are reached, such as complete loss of summer sea ice in the Arctic, it increases chances of “really intolerable consequences,” he said.
Twice in a half-hour interview, Holdren compared global warming to being “in a car with bad brakes driving toward a cliff in the fog.”
At first, Holdren characterized the potential need to technologically tinker with the climate as just his personal view. However, he went on to say he has raised it in administration discussions.
Holdren, a 65-year-old physicist, is far from alone in taking geoengineering more seriously. The National Academy of Science is making climate tinkering the subject of its first workshop in its new multidiscipline climate challenges program. The British parliament has also discussed the idea.
The American Meteorological Society is crafting a policy statement on geoengineering that says “it is prudent to consider geoengineering’s potential, to understand its limits and to avoid rash deployment.”
Last week, Princeton scientist Robert Socolow told the National Academy that geoengineering should be an available option in case climate worsens dramatically.
But Holdren noted that shooting particles into the air — making an artificial volcano as one Nobel laureate has suggested — could have grave side effects and would not completely solve all the problems from soaring greenhouse gas emissions. So such actions could not be taken lightly, he said.
Still, “we might get desperate enough to want to use it,” he added.
Another geoengineering option he mentioned was the use of so-called artificial trees to suck carbon dioxide — the chief human-caused greenhouse gas — out of the air and store it. At first that seemed prohibitively expensive, but a re-examination of the approach shows it might be less costly, he said.
DRAFT FEB 09 – Please check http://chemtrails.cc/ for latest revision.
The most commonly used commercial turbine jet fuels today are named JET-A, JET-A1, and JET-B. All of these are kerosene type fuels except JET-B which is a kerosene-naphtha blend for colder climates [1, 2]. JET-A is used internationally and JET-A1 is available only in the US. The US military primarily uses its own kerosene jet fuel, JP-8, which is similar to JET-A1 [11, 2].
A number of chemical additives are used in these fuels including corrosion inhibitors, temperature stabilizers, detergents, and static electricity dissipators. Static dissipators are of particular importance to atmospheric aerosol and environmental research, due to their metal content and their widespread use in commercial and military jet fuel [17, 8]. Octel Starreon Stadis® 450 is a static dissipator, comprised of dinonylnapthalene sulfonic acid and other organic solvents, and according to the product MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet), it contains two “trade secret” ingredients . Stadis 450 is the only approved anti-static additive for use in Air Force aviation fuels, including JP-8, JP-5, JET-A1, and JET-B . DuPont, the original manufacturer, reports having divested its production of Stadis 450 in September of 1994 to Octel Starreon LLC , now a subsidiary of Innospec Fuel Specialties. Innospec also manufactures another static dissipator additive called Statsafe®. However, according to Exxon Mobil, Stadis 450 continues to be the static dissipator of choice for commercial and military aviation .
… static dissipator additive is widely used in jet kerosene …. Stadis® 450 is the only additive currently manufactured for use in aviation turbine fuels approved by the major turbine and airframe manufacturers.
Although the “trade secret” ingredients are well protected by the manufacturer, a recent study contracted by the EPA  and other sources strongly imply that these ingredients are salts of barium and/or calcium. The EPA classifies this dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid, barium salt as a “HPV” (High Production Volume) chemical, meaning it is “produced or imported into the United States in quantities of 1 million pounds or more per year .” This same study reports that “Based on the available toxicity results, dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid, barium salt appears to be the most biologically active member of the [dinonylnaphthalene] category .”
It is hypothesized that jet exhaust aerosol  is responsible for cloud seeding, rainbow diffraction, and dichroism observed in persistent contrails . While “skeptics” may dismiss the very existence of persistent contrails, the phenomenon is widespread and commonly accepted among atmospheric scientists . The exact cause of aerosol cloud seeding has been the subject of endless debate, but it has been shown conclusively that the earth’s albedo, or its overall reflectivity, is increased by contrail aerosol (see chemtrails.cc sattelite imagery category).
In the 3 days after the attacks on Sept. 11, 2001 during which the FAA grounded all commercial aircraft in the US, a unique opportunity to study atmospheric aerosol presented itself. David J. Travis, University of Wisconsin found significant changes in surface temperature and presented his findings to the American Meteorological Society .
There are a number of byproducts of combustion of kerosene jet fuel and its additives, including water, carbon dioxide, soot, sulfuric and nitrous acid, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, and metal ions , although this is by no means a complete list. Carbon monoxide and aromatic hydrocarbons also result from incomplete combustion.
Not surprisingly, UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) only makes casual mention of these metal particles, and fails to provide any information as to their role in atmospheric aerosol formation.
If one phenomenon gives away the presence of metals in the aerosol, it would be the large number of high altitude rainbows produced by contrail aerosol. Virtually unheard of prior to 1990, bright rainbows, sometimes referred to as “circumhorizon arcs” or more commonly, “chembows,” can be observed regularly wherever jet aircraft fly.
According to a patent issued to Hughes Aircraft Company for dispersing metallic aerosol into the stratosphere, particles may stay suspended for up to a year. Hughes Aircraft, a major US defense contractor [14, 15], has been bought and sold by other defense contractors such as Boeing and Raytheon in recent years.
Exeprt from United States Patent 5003186:
The particles may be seeded by dispersal from seeding aircraft; one exemplary technique may be via the jet fuel as suggested by prior work regarding the metallic particles. Once the tiny particles have been dispersed into the atmosphere, the particles may remain in suspension for up to one year.
To avoid making qualitative judgments, I will not belabor the point that the horizon has been consistently gray, anywhere near commercial airports, since at least the early 1990s. But it would appear that the metal aerosol is indeed being dispersed, and staying suspended. While corporate media generally claims there can be no further debate about climate change, there are thousands of respected scientists who dispute the notion that atmospheric CO2 is the primary cause, and take exception to the idea that human intervention is required to “correct” it. At least 400 of them have testified to this effect to the US Senate .
Critical thinkers must question whether, with such flimsy scientific evidence, controlling the climate is the true motivation behind this metal aerosol dispersal. A 10 mile thick blanket of metal aerosol may have other uses to the militaries of the world, particularly in the fields of surveillance, aircraft and missile guidance, radar ducting, and radio frequency weapons systems.
- GRID-Arendal in collaboration with United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/climate/ipcc/aviation/034.htm
- DETAIL SPECIFICATION, TURBINE FUEL, AVIATION, KEROSENE TYPE, JP-8 (NATO F-34), NATO F-35, and JP-8+100 (NATO F-37) [pdf]. U.S. Army. Downloaded from http://www.hnd.usace.army.mil/stddgn/data%5C078_24_28%5CPreviews%5C15880.pdf
- AEF Fuels Management Pocket Guide [pdf]. U.S. Air Force. Downloaded from http://www.aflma.hq.af.mil/lgj/AEF_fules_book_2007_final.pdf
- High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program Test Plan and Data Review, Dinonylnaphthalene Category [pdf]. http://www.epa.gov/hpv/pubs/summaries/dinapcat/c15766tp.pdf
- PermitApplicationReports200808-Marathon_Stadis_450.pdf Source: http://www.louisvilleky.gov/NR/rdonlyres/E20509AE-4D28-4603-83B3-B16A640C9D10/0/PermitApplicationReports200808.pdf
- Hughes Aircraft Company
- Over 400 Prominent Scientists Disputed Man-Made Global Warming Claims in 2007. From http://epw.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=Minority.SenateReport
- Exxon Mobil World Jet Fuel Speciﬁcations with Avgas Supplement. From: http://www.exxonmobilaviation.com/AviationGlobal/Files/WorldJetFuelSpec2008_1.pdf
- Octel Starreon Stadis 450 MSDS
While I’m skeptical that atmospheric CO2 is the primary cause of “global warming,” or that our earth is even warming at all (coldest winter in 50 years this year, in north america and china), I do strongly believe the 10-20% increase in the earth’s albedo (reflectivity) caused by chemtrail aerosol will have a significant cooling effect. Sunlight and water vapor are the primary driving forces of the earth’s surface temperature. CO2 makes up only .03% of our atmosphere (thats three-hundredths of a percent), and a tiny fraction of the primary greenhouse gas, water vapor.
A method is described for reducing atmospheric or global warming resulting from the presence of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere, i.e., from the greenhouse effect. Such gases are relatively transparent to sunshine, but absorb strongly the long-wavelength infrared radiation released by the earth. The method incudes the step of seeding the layer of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere with particles of materials characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity. Such materials include Welsbach materials and the oxides of metals which have high emissivity (and thus low reflectivities) in the visible and 8-12 micron infrared wavelength regions.
What is claimed is:
1. A method of reducing atmospheric warming due to the greenhouse effect resulting from a layer of gases in the atmosphere which absorb strongly near infrared wavelength radiation, comprising the step of dispersing tiny particles of a material within the gases’ layer, the particle material characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity or reflectivity, in that said material has high emissivities with respect to radiation in the visible and far infrared wavelength spectra, and low emissivity in the near infrared wavelength spectrum, whereby said tiny particles provide a means for converting infrared heat energy into far infrared radiation which is radiated into space.
2. The method of claim wherein said material comprises one or more of the oxides of metals.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein said material comprises aluminum oxide.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein said material comprises thorium oxide.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein said particles are dispersed by seeding the stratosphere with a quantity of said particles at altitudes in the range of seven to thirteen kilometers above the earth’s surface.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein the size of said particles is in the range of ten to one hundred microns.
7. The method of claim wherein said material comprises a refractory material.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein said material is a Welsbach material.
9. The method of claim 1 wherein the number of said dispersed particles per unit area in the particle layer is greater than or equal to 1/σabs 1, where 1 is the thickness of the particle layer and σabs is the absorption coefficient of the particles at the far infrared wavelengths.
10. A method for reducing atmospheric warming due to the greenhouse effect resulting from a greenhouse gases layer, comprising the following step:
seeding the greenhouse gases’ layer with a quantity of tiny particles of a material characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity or reflectivity, in that said materials have high emissivities in the visible and far infrared wavelength spectra and low emissivity in the near infrared wavelength spectrum,
whereby said particles are suspended within said gases’ layer and provide a means for converting radiative energy at near infrared wavelengths into radiation at the far infrared wavelengths, permitting some of the converted radiation to escape into space.
11. The method of claim 10 wherein said material comprises one or more of the oxides of metals.
12. The method of claim 10 wherein said material comprises aluminum oxide.
13. The method of claim 10 wherein said material is thorium oxide.
14. The method of claim 10 wherein said seeding is performed at altitudes in the range of seven to thirteen kilometers above the earth’s surface.
15. The method of claim 10 wherein said material comprises a refractory material.
16. The method of claim 10 wherein said particle size is in range of ten to one hundred microns.
17. The method of claim 10 wherein said material is a Welsbach material.
18. The method of claim 10 wherein the number of said dispersed particles per unit area in the particle layer is greater than or equal to 1/σabs 1, where 1 is the thickness of the particle layer and σabs is the absorption coefficient of the particles at the far infrared wavelengths.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to a method for the reduction of global warming resulting from the greenhouse effect, and in particular to a method which involves the seeding of the earth’s stratosphere with Welsbach-like materials.
Global warming has been a great concern of many environmental scientists. Scientists believe that the greenhouse effect is responsible for global warming. Greatly increased amounts of heat-trapping gases have been generated since the Industrial Revolution. These gases, such as CO 2 , CFC, and methane, accumulate in the atmosphere and allow sunlight to stream in freely but block heat from escaping (greenhouse effect). These gases are relatively transparent to sunshine but absorb strongly the long-wavelength infrared radiation released by the earth.
Most current approaches to reduce global warming are to restrict the release of various greenhouse gases, such as CO 2 , CFC, and methane. These imply the need to establish new regulations and the need to monitor various gases and to enforce the regulations.
One proposed solution to the problem of global warming involves the seeding of the atmosphere with metallic particles. One technique proposed to seed the metallic particles was to add the tiny particles to the fuel of jet airliners, so that the particles would be emitted from the jet engine exhaust while the airliner was at its cruising altitude. While this method would increase the reflection of visible light incident from space, the metallic particles would trap the long wavelength blackbody radiation released from the earth. This could result in net increase in global warming.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a method for reduction of global warming due to the greenhouse effect which permits heat to escape through the atmosphere.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
A method is disclosed for reducing atmospheric warming due to the greenhouse effect resulting from a greenhouse gases layer. The method comprises the step of seeding the greenhouse gas layer with a quantity of tiny particles of materials characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity or reflectivity, in that said materials have high emissivities in the visible and far infrared wavelength regions and low emissivity in the near infrared wavelength region. Such materials can include the class of materials known as Welsbach materials. The oxides of metal, e.g., aluminum oxide, are also suitable for the purpose. The greenhouse gases layer typically extends between about seven and thirteen kilometers above the earth’s surface. The seeding of the stratosphere occurs within this layer. The particles suspended in the stratosphere as a result of the seeding provide a mechanism for converting the blackbody radiation emitted by the earth at near infrared wavelengths into radiation in the visible and far infrared wavelength so that this heat energy may be reradiated out into space, thereby reducing the global warming due to the greenhouse effect.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
These and other features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description of an exemplary embodiment thereof, as illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 illustrates a model for the heat trapping phenomenon, i.e., the greenhouse effect.
FIG. 2 is a graph illustrating the intensity of sunlight incident on earth and of the earth’s blackbody radiation as a function of wavelength.
FIG. 3 is a graph illustrating an ideal emissivity versus wavelength function for the desired particle material.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
FIG. 1 shows a model for the heat-trapping (greenhouse effect) phenomenon. It is assumed that the greenhouse gases are concentrated at altitudes between y=0 (at some altitude Y 1 , above the earth’s surface) and y=1. Regardless of the sunshine reflected back into space, i 1 and i 2 denote the shortwavelength sunlight energies that are absorbed by the earth’s surface and the greenhouse gases, respectively. Available data shows that i 1 =0.45 i sol and i 2 =0.25 i sol , where i sol is the total flux from the sun. The short wavelength sunlight heats up the greenhouse gases and the earth surface, and this energy is eventually reradiated out in the long wavelength infrared region.
FIG. 2 is a graph illustrating the intensity of sunlight and the earth’s blackbody radiation as a function of wavelength. As illustrated, some 30% of the sunlight energy is in the near infrared region. The earth’s blackbody radiation, on the other hand, is at the far infrared wavelength.
Referring again to FIG. 1, I s , I + , I - , I g and I e represent the fluxes in the infrared wavelength region, where I s and I g are the fluxes reradiated by the greenhouse gases toward the sky and ground, respectively; I e is the flux reradiated by the earth; and I + and I - are fluxes within the gases radiating toward the space and ground, respectively. I + and I - are functions of y, e.g., I + (0) is the I + flux at y=0. Considering the principles of energy conservation and continuity at boundaries, the following relationships are obtained: I s =i 1 +i 2 (1) I s =I + (1)(1-R l ) (2) I - (1)=I + (1)R l (3) I + (0)=I - (0)R o +I e (1-R o ) (4) I g =I - (0)(1-R o )+I e R o (5) I e =I BB (T e )(1-R)+I g R (6) I e =i 1 +I g (7)
where R o , R l and R are the reflectivities at the y=0 and y=1 boundaries and at the earth’s surface. I BB (T e ) is the blackbody radiation flux at the earth’s temperature T e . Within the greenhouse gases’ layer, the energy equations are (dI + /dy)=I BB (T g )-αI + (8) -(dI - /dy)=I BB (T g )-αI - (9)
where I BB (T g ) is the blackbody radiation flux at the greenhouse gases’ temperature T g , and α is the absorption coefficient of the gases. The solutions of equations 8 and 9 are given by equations 10 and 11: I + (y)=(I BB /α)+Ce αy (10) I - (y)=(I BB /α)+De + αy (11)
To illustrate the effects of R o and R l on the green-house effect, the extreme case is considered wherein a high concentration of greenhouse gases has strong absorption in the infrared region; that is, for y=1, e - αl approaches 0. Then, using Equations 3 and 4, the relationships of Equations 12 and 13 are obtained. C=(I e -(I BB /α))(1-R o ) (12) D=0
From Equations 5 and 7, I e =i 1 +I - (0)(1-R o )+I e R o ,
or I e =(i 1 /(1-R o ))+(I BB /α). (14)
From Equations 2 and 1, I s =(I BB /α)(1-R l )=i 1 +i 2 ,
or (I BB /α)=(i 1 +i 2 )/(1-R l ). (15)
Combining Equations 14 and 15, the relationship of Equation 16 is obtained. I e =i 1 /(1-R o )+(i 1 +i 2 )/(1-R l )(16)
Finally, Equation 6 gives the blackbody radiation from the earth’s surface in terms of i 1 and i 2 and the three reflectivities: I e =I BB (T e )(1-R)+(I e -i 1 )R I BB (T e )=I e +(R/(1-R))i 1
or I BB (T e )=i 1 /(1-R o )+(i 1 +i 2 )/(1-R l )+(R/(1-R))i 1 (17)
To achieve a lower temperature of the earth, (considering i 1 , i 2 and R as constants), it is desirable to make R and R l as small as possible.
Known refractory materials have a thermal emissivity function which is strongly wavelength dependent. For example, the materials may have high emissivity (and absorption) at the far infrared wavelengths, high emissivity in the visible wavelength range, and very low emissivity at intermediate wavelengths. If a material having those emissivity characteristics and a black body are exposed to IR energy of equal intensity, the selective thermal radiator will emit visible radiation with higher efficiency (if radiation cooling predominates), i.e., the selective thermal radiator will appear brighter than the black body. This effect is known as the Welsbach effect and is extensively used in commercial gas lantern mantles.
Welsbach materials have the characteristic of wavelength-dependent emissivity (or reflectivity). For example, thorium oxide (ThO 2 ) has high emissivities in the visible and far IR regions but it has low emissivity in the near IR region. So, in accordance with the invention, the layer of greenhouse gases is seeded with Welsbach or Welsbach-like materials which have high emissivities (and thus low reflectivities) in the visible and 8-12 micrometer infrared regions, which has the effect of reducing R o and R l while introducing no effect in the visible range.
A desired material for the stratospheric seeding has a reflection coefficient close to unity for near IR radiation, and a reflection coefficient close to zero (or emissity close to unity) for far IR radiation. FIG. 3 is a graph illustrating an ideal emissivity versus wavelength function for the desired material. Another class of materials having the desired property includes the oxides of metals. For example, aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) is one metal oxide suitable for the purpose and which is relatively inexpensive.
It is presently believed that particle sizes in the ten to one hundred micron range would be suitable for the seeding purposes. Larger particles would tend to settle to the earth more quickly.
The particles in the required size range can be obtained with conventional methods of grinding and meshing.
It is believed that the number of particles n d per unit area in the particle layer should be defined by Equation 18: n d 1≥1/σ abs (18)
where 1 is the thickness of the particle layer and σ abs is the absorption coefficient of the particles at the long IR wavelengths. One crude estimate of the density of particles is given by Equation (19): n d 1≥(cmw)/(4πe 2 ) (19)
where c is the speed of light, m is the average particle mass, e is the electron charge, and w is the absorption line width in sec -1 .
The greenhouse gases are typically in the earth’s stratosphere at an altitude of seven to thirteen kilometers. This suggests that the particle seeding should be done at an altitude on the order of 10 kilometers. The particles may be seeded by dispersal from seeding aircraft; one exemplary technique may be via the jet fuel as suggested by prior work regarding the metallic particles. Once the tiny particles have been dispersed into the atmosphere, the particles may remain in suspension for up to one year.
It is understood that the above-described embodiment is merely illustrative of the possible specific embodiments which may represent principles of the present invention. Other arrangements may readily be devised in accordance with these principles by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention.