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Tag: aluminum


Monsanto Aluminum-resistant GMO – Comment thread on Thom Hartmann site

by on Oct.23, 2010, under What are they?

Unfortunately some disinfo shill was dominating the comment thread on his site so I just went ahead and cleaned it up a bit ;)

Monsanto develops Aluminum Resistant biotech seeds

ABCee's picture
Submitted by ABCee on 14. May 2010 – 8:43

Why on earth would anybody need aluminum resistant seeds?

“Delivering Genetically Engineered Crops to Poor Farmers”

Comments

LeMoyne wrote 23 weeks 1 day ago

From a testing company

From a testing company website:

Very little Al+++ in the soil solution is required to cause damage to most plants. Few, if any plants grown for commercial purposes in this country will tolerate more than 1.0 ppm of soluble Al+++, and most will have some problems at levels greater than 0.5 ppm.

Aluminum is a common metal in soils.  It is a significant toxin in acid soils (or soils exposed to acid rain) causing stunted roots (no rootlets ergo poor plant health).  Good picture on that site as well.

Here are that site’s general conclusions

– When the soil pH is below 5.0, soluble Al is almost certainly a problem.

– When the soil pH is between 5.0 and 5.5, soluble Al likely a small problem

– When the soil pH is between 5.5 and 6.0, soluble Al is not likely to be a significant problem

– When the soil pH is above 6.0, soluble Al is almost certainly not a problem.

– Lime is the solution to excess soluble Al in the topsoil

– Gypsum may be needed to correct excess soluble Al in the subsoil

Hope that’s helpful – I learned something so… thanks!   The genetic modification to withstand Aluminum is probably done to keep an acid tolerant plant from surviving the low pH but stunting from Al+++ poisoning.

Snorky2k wrote 23 weeks 1 day ago

Won’t adding gypsum liberate

Won’t adding gypsum liberate toxic H2S as gas?

ABCee wrote 23 weeks 1 day ago

Quote:Aluminum is a common

Quote:

Aluminum is a common metal in soils.  It is a significant toxin in acid soils (or soils exposed to acid rain) causing stunted roots (no rootlets ergo poor plant health).

Why is aluminum present in off the scale amounts in the Mt. Shasta area?

When a hydro-geologist was shown the tests, he stated, “unless you live near an Alcoa Aluminum plant, there is no way these types of metals (barium has also been detected) should be showing up in your pond or rainwater samples, in any quantity.”  The Pit River sample tested at 4,610,000 ug/L, which is 4,610 times the MCL.
Citizens seeking answers to aluminum contamination concerns

sevart wrote 4 weeks 4 days ago

For any coincidence theorists

For any coincidence theorists out there, here is the patent for the aluminum aerial spraying…

http://www.scribd.com/doc/4296843/US-Patent-5003186-Stratospheric-welsba…

All in the name of the global warming, global cooling,climate change ,global climate disruption or whatever they call it now fraud.

User wrote 4 weeks 2 days ago

I followed this case for two

I followed this case for two years. This is backed up with facts. Bill HR 875  was introduced by Rosa DeLauro whose husband Stanley Greenburg works for Monsanto, the worlds largest herbicide company.  Since 2004 tests were conducted on high levels of aluminum in the soil.  Here is a lab report.

http://www.holmestead.ca/chemtrails/soiltest.html

Many different lab tests resulted in  high levels of unatural aluminum oxide and barium which are direct results from the chemtrails. My conclusion is that the levels are not natural but man made. Some agency is purposely putting this in the air.

ABCee wrote 2 weeks 4 days ago

Make sure to watch the new

Make sure to watch the new documentary What In The World Are They Spraying? which looks at the aluminum resistant Monsanto seeds, and the dramatically increased levels of aluminum and other toxic materials in such “pristine” ecosystems as the Mt. Shasta area.

Choco wrote 2 weeks 4 days ago

ABCee wrote: Make sure to

ABCee wrote:

Make sure to watch the new documentary What In The World Are They Spraying? which looks at the aluminum resistant Monsanto seeds, and the dramatically increased levels of aluminum and other toxic materials in such “pristine” ecosystems as the Mt. Shasta area.

Brought to you buy or globalist friends at Council of Foreign Relations: Geoengineering.

http://www.cfr.org/project/1364/geoengineering.html

steveaustin wrote 2 weeks 4 days ago

However that is just

However that is just bullsh-it, the real reason is that the aluminum gets into the environment and it is weaking the plants and in 2-4 years if we want food we will have to buy GMO seeds that are . . . . (of course) aluminum resistant. The data and evidence is all there, from the plants getting sick/weaker, to the monsanto aluminum resistant biotech seeds. Aluminum Foil

ABCee wrote 2 weeks 2 days ago

makuck wrote:Quote: In the

makuck wrote:

Quote:

In the end government is probably the only thing between us and Monsanto that prevents them from actually doing something like destroying seed banks of ancient non-gmo plant varieties.

Speaking of seed banks, I find it interesting that Bill Gates is investing tens of his millions along with the Rockefeller Foundation, Monsanto Corporation, Syngenta Foundation and the Government of Norway, among others, in what is called the ‘doomsday seed bank.’ Officially the project is named the Svalbard Global Seed Vault on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen, part of the Svalbard island group.

More on Mr. Gates:

Amidst revelations in this weekend’s (May 24th) London Times newspaper that a team of scientists and engineers funded by billionaire Bill Gates are planning to carry out a 10,000 square kilometer field trial of controversial “cloud-whitening” technology, over one hundred civil society groups are urging governments meeting on biological diversity in Nairobi to stop risky geoengineering experiments now. Geoengineering refers to large-scale technological schemes to intentionally alter the planet’s systems as a quick fix for climate change.

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Scientists Admit Chemtrails Are Creating Artificial Clouds

by on Jul.02, 2010, under In the News, What are they?

Mainstream science accepts that trails from jet aircraft are lingering for hours, but claims it is a natural phenomenon

Scientists Admit Chemtrails Are Creating Artificial Clouds 020710top2

Paul Joseph Watson
Prison Planet.com
Friday, July 2, 2010

Scientists now admit that emissions from aircraft are forming artificial clouds that block out the sun, precisely what geoengineering advocates like top eugenicist and White House science advisor John P. Holdren have called for, but the article tries to insinuate that the effect is caused by natural “vapours,” when in reality it can be attributed to chemtrails that contain substances harmful to humans.

“The phenomenon occurs when aircraft fly above 25,000ft, where the air temperature is around minus 30C. This causes water vapour emitted by the engines to crystallise and form the familiar white streaks across the sky, known as contrails,” writes Oliver Tree for the Daily Mail.

“Reading University’s Professor Keith Shine, an expert in clouds, said that those formed by aircraft fumes could linger ‘for hours’, depriving those areas under busy flight paths, such as London and the Home Counties, of summer sunshine.”

“Experts have warned that, as a result, the amount of sunlight hitting the ground could be reduced by as much as ten per cent. Professor Shine added: “Over the busiest areas in London and the South of England, this high-level cloud could cover the sky, turning bright sunshine into hazy conditions for the entire area. I expect the effects will get worse as the volume of air traffic increases.”

The report also makes reference to a 2009 Met Office study which found that high-level winds did not disperse contrails that later formed into clouds which covered an astonishing 20,000 miles.

Of course, this is no natural phenomenon as the article claims. Ten years ago, contrails from jet aircraft disappeared within minutes, yet apparently we are led to believe that the same substance is now causing the trails to linger for hours and form into clouds. This is impossible without something within the substance having been changed.

Mainstream science and academia has gone from dismissing chemtrails as a fantasy of paranoid conspiracy theorists to now accepting that they exist but claiming that they are natural and not artificially induced.

In reality, chemtrails are the consequence of the agenda to geoengineer the earth in the name of combating climate change, a science vehemently backed by people like John P. Holdren, who in his 1977 book Ecoscience advocated poisoning the water supply to involuntarily sterilize humans as part of a “planetary regime” that would control every aspect of our existence. The fact that such eugenicists are now in control of geoengineering programs that will have a direct impact on our health is alarming.

Geoengineering programs have also been promoted by the Council on Foreign Relations, which is one of the main steering committees behind the implementation of global governance.

A recent report issued by the UK government also calls for the UN to exclusively regulate world wide geoengineering of the planet in order to stave off man made global warming.

Discussion of geoengineering technology is often framed as a future consideration, yet governments are already conducting such programs at an advanced stage.

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Science and managed by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

One of ARM’s programs, entitled Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), is aimed at measuring “cloud simulations” and “aerosol retrievals”.

Another program under the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Science Program is directed towards, “developing comprehensive understanding of the atmospheric processes that control the transport, transformation, and fate of energy related trace chemicals and particulate matter.”

The DOE website states that, “The current focus of the program is aerosol radiative forcing of climate: aerosol formation and evolution and aerosol properties that affect direct and indirect influences on climate and climate change.”

U.S. government scientists are already bombarding the skies with the acid-rain causing pollutant sulphur dioxide in an attempt to fight global warming by “geo-engineering” the planet, despite the fact that injecting aerosols into the upper atmosphere carries with it a host of both known and unknown dangers.

The proposal to disperse sulphur dioxide in an attempt to reflect sunlight was discussed in a September 2008 London Guardian article entitled, Geoengineering: The radical ideas to combat global warming, in which Ken Caldeira, a leading climate scientist based at the Carnegie Institution in Stanford, California, promoted the idea of injecting the atmosphere with aerosols.

Scientists Admit Chemtrails Are Creating Artificial Clouds 150410banner1

“One approach is to insert “scatterers” into the stratosphere,” states the article. “Caldeira cites an idea to deploy jumbo jets into the upper atmosphere and deposit clouds of tiny particles there, such as sulphur dioxide. Dispersing around 1m tonnes of sulphur dioxide per year across 10m square kilometres of the atmosphere would be enough to reflect away sufficient amounts of sunlight.”

Experiments similar to Caldeira’s proposal are already being carried out by U.S. government -backed scientists, such as those at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Savannah River National Laboratory in Aiken, S.C, who last year began conducting studies which involved shooting huge amounts of particulate matter, in this case “porous-walled glass microspheres,” into the stratosphere.

The project is closely tied to an idea by Nobel Prize winner Paul Crutzen, who “proposed sending aircraft 747s to dump huge quantities of sulfur particles into the far-reaches of the stratosphere to cool down the atmosphere.”

Such programs merely scratch the surface of what is likely to be a gargantuan and overarching black-budget funded project to geo-engineer the planet, with little or no care for the unknown environmental consequences this could engender.

What is known about what happens when the environment is loaded with sulphur dioxide is bad enough, since the compound is the main component of acid rain, which according to the EPA “Causes acidification of lakes and streams and contributes to the damage of trees at high elevations (for example, red spruce trees above 2,000 feet) and many sensitive forest soils. In addition, acid rain accelerates the decay of building materials and paints, including irreplaceable buildings, statues, and sculptures that are part of our nation’s cultural heritage.”

The health effects of bombarding the skies with sulphur dioxide alone are enough to raise serious questions about whether such programs should even be allowed to proceed.

The following health effects are linked with exposure to sulphur.

- Neurological effects and behavioral changes
- Disturbance of blood circulation
- Heart damage
- Effects on eyes and eyesight
- Reproductive failure
- Damage to immune systems
- Stomach and gastrointestinal disorder
- Damage to liver and kidney functions
- Hearing defects
- Disturbance of the hormonal metabolism
- Dermatological effects
- Suffocation and lung embolism

According to the LennTech website, “Laboratory tests with test animals have indicated that sulfur can cause serious vascular damage in veins of the brains, the heart and the kidneys. These tests have also indicated that certain forms of sulfur can cause foetal damage and congenital effects. Mothers can even carry sulfur poisoning over to their children through mother milk. Finally, sulfur can damage the internal enzyme systems of animals.”

Fred Singer, president of the Science Environmental Policy Project and a skeptic of man-made global warming theories, warns that the consequences of tinkering with the planet’s delicate eco-system could have far-reaching dangers.

“If you do this on a continuous basis, you would depress the ozone layer and cause all kinds of other problems that people would rather avoid,” said Singer.

Even Greenpeace’s chief UK scientist – a staunch advocate of the man-made global warming explanation – Doug Parr has slammed attempts to geo-engineer the planet as “outlandish” and “dangerous”.

Stephen Schneider of Stanford University, who recently proposed a bizarre plan to send spaceships into the upper atmosphere that would be used to block out the Sun, admits that geo-engineering could cause “conflicts between nations if geoengineering projects go wrong.”

Given all the immediate dangers associated with bombarding the atmosphere with sulphur dioxide, along with the unknown dangers of other geo-engineering projects, many people are concerned that “chemtrails” are a secret component of the same agenda to alter the Earth’s eco-system.

The fact that chemtrails are blocking out the sun, which is precisely what the geoengineering advocates call for, strongly indicates that they are an integral part of this dangerous and wide-reaching program.

The Government Is Already Geo Engineering The Environment 050908geo2
This graphic proposes, “Spraying aluminum powder and barium oxide into high levels of the atmosphere, again delivered by aircraft, to increase planetary reflectance (albedo) and cloud cover.” High levels of barium have been found in substances associated with chemtrails.

Reports of chemtrails, jet plumes emitted from planes that hang in the air for hours and do not dissipate, often blanketing the sky in criss-cross patterns, have increased dramatically over the last 10 years. Many have speculated that they are part of a government program to alter climate, inoculate humans against certain pathogens, or even to toxify humans as part of a population reduction agenda.

In conducting Google searches, one finds discussion, such as this example, of using sulphur dioxide as a jet fuel additive to be dispersed over the world during routine commercial flights.

“I suggest that both the sulphur dioxide and the silica particles could be delivered into the stratosphere by dissolving an additive in jet aviation fuel,” writes engineer John Gorman, who has conducted experiments to test the feasibility of such a scenario.

“We would want to burn fuel containing the additive specifically when the aircraft was cruising in the lower stratosphere,” he adds.

In 2008, a KSLA news investigation found that a substance that fell to earth from a high altitude chemtrail contained high levels of Barium (6.8 ppm) and Lead (8.2 ppm) as well as trace amounts of other chemicals including arsenic, chromium, cadmium, selenium and silver. Of these, all but one are metals, some are toxic while several are rarely or never found in nature.

The newscast focuses on Barium, which its research shows is a “hallmark of chemtrails.” KSLA found Barium levels in its samples at 6.8 ppm or “more than six times the toxic level set by the EPA.” The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality confirmed that the high levels of Barium were “very unusual,” but commented that “proving the source was a whole other matter” in its discussion with KSLA.

KSLA also asked Mark Ryan, Director of the Poison Control Center, about the effects of Barium on the human body. Ryan commented that “short term exposure can lead to anything from stomach to chest pains and that long term exposure causes blood pressure problems.” The Poison Control Center further reported that long-term exposure, as with any harmful substance, would contribute to weakening the immune system, which many speculate is the purpose of such man-made chemical trails.

Indeed, barium oxide has cropped up repeatedly as a contaminant from suspected geoengineering experimentation.

KSLA also put aerosolized-chemical testing in its historical context, citing a voluminous number of unclassified tests exposed in 1977 Senate hearings. The tests included experimenting with biochemical compounds on the public. KSLA reports that “239 populated areas were contaminated with biological agents between 1949 and 1969.”

One of the accepted truisms of scientific study is the fact that if scientists are proposing an idea, then those scientists with access to the bottomless pit of black-budget secret government funding are already doing it.

It is highly likely that chemtrails are merely one manifestation of “geo-engineering” that is taking place without proper debate, notification or any form of legality, and with a callous disregard for the potential dangers to both our health and our environment.

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The Chemistry Of The Modern Sky

by on May.03, 2010, under What are they?

projectstrat.com
By Nicholas Jones
Illustration – Carl White
Earth Day 2002
4-17-02

Earth Day approaches. A time for appreciation, reflection and action. Activists mobilize to defend the responsible stewardship of this precious blue sphere. Global warming remains the big issue on the podium and in Big Media. But the focus on chimney stacks and car exhaust rising from the ground is distracting world attention from a far more apocalyptic operation underway in the sky: global warming mitigation. While environmentalists have long argued that a warm, fuzzy blanket of greenhouse gas threatens to melt polar ice caps, one of the most ambitious global engineering initiatives in earth’s history may have already started above and over our heads.

Evidence is now literally floating in the air for various projects underway, documented by patents and confirmed by whistleblowers, in militaryspeak: aerial spraying, scattering and chaff operations. We, mere mortals on the ground, may use the term “chemtrails”, and without Our consent, it appears that heavy metals are being released into the upper atmosphere at an alarming rate – to save us from ourselves – as proposed in a paper delivered before the 22nd International Seminar on Planetary Emergencies, in 1997, by E. Teller et al.

The author, to be more precise, is ‘E’ for Edward, preceded by ‘Dr.’, the co-father of the H-Bomb and darling savant of the US Department of Defense and the military-industrial-academic establishment, the same Dr. T who in the 50′s invented a perky little radiation mascot, Readi Killowat, while proposing to create artificial harbours by nuking the coastline. Although we got the bomb, thankfully, the glowing harbours never got the green light. But on April 24, 2001, the New York Times confirmed that he had indeed “promoted the idea of manipulating the earth’s atmosphere to counteract global warming.” The Spin: a lining of aluminum chaff scattered into the upper atmosphere to create a sun screen – like a giant emergency blanket wrapping the earth – to reflect UV radiation back into space and save the world!

Brilliant! A chrome-plated planet. But here’s the catch: What goes up, must come down. Over three months, three separate rainwater and snow samples from Chapel Hill, North Carolina were collected and submitted for ‘double-blind’ laboratory analysis in March, 2002. Tests were ordered for several elements which should not be present in normal rain or snow. The result was devastating news about the health of our ecosystem: all samples consistently revealed enough of the following materials to indicate that they were present in the atmosphere “in large amounts…and concentrated form” through a “very controlled delivery (dispersion),” primarily: aluminum and barium.

Follow the chemical trail, from A-Z. Aluminum, inhaled or ingested, as we have all been warned, makes us forget the warnings that aluminum makes us forget….in other words: Aluminum – bad. Barium compounds that dissolve well in water (like rain) will cause a whole host of symptoms, from breathing difficulties to brain swelling. Barium is hygroscopic, a dessicant or drying agent: itchy eyes, burning throat, asthma, allergies, nose and lung bleeds. Barium – really bad. Just ask Readi Kilowatt’s chemical counterpart, Mr. Yuk! Most of us will remember the mean, green man who stopped us from downing a bottle of Bleach when we were six. The Mr. Yuk for our corner of earth is technically the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) in the south, and Environment Canada, where it snows. However, barium hasn’t even been classified by the EPA with respect to human carcinogenity because no studies have even been done on people. Surprisingly, aluminum is also a no show on the list of hazardous air pollutants.

But check any Material Safety Data Sheet and you’ll find barium clearly marked: “DANGER! MAY BE FATAL IF SWALLOWED” with the “Health Rating: 3 – Severe (Life)”. Hey kids, bring out your “GOGGLES and GLOVES” Mr. Yuk’s taking you on a picnic! But, here’s the scary part, on the same Data Sheet, under Environmental Toxicity: “No information found”. Barium has twenty times more chronic lethality than the worse organic-chlorinated pesticide (private interview with R. Mike Castle, Nationally Accredited Environmental Risk Auditor). Confusing? Not really – nobody with enough acuity to read has been reckless enough to intentionally release barium into the ecosystem. Until now.

When anhydrous barium (mon)oxide reacts with water, forming barium hydroxide (commonly known as soluble barium salts), the chemical reaction liberates a lot of heat. And where there’s heat, there’s fire. Let’s connect the dots. Follow closely: February 17, 2002 UP Science News headlines, “Pollution drying up rainfall” – when particles are too small to seed nice fat raindrops, “the clouds that do form…have a hard time to rain.” These tiny particles are called “aerosols” by scientists, and long term exposure is now “an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality” (Journal of the American Medical Association). Bad news for the humans.

It gets worse for the earth, and here’s where the heat turns up: a third of the United States and even vast tracts of Canadian Prairie are suffering from acute drought conditions, some of the worst shortages in years. Rivers are literally drying up. Reservoirs are at record low levels. New York has declared a drought emergency. Montana is officially a drought disaster area. Even the UN warns of severe water shortages by 2025 – globally. Back to the lab: barium has a much lower “specific heat” value of 0.19 as compared to air (1.003) and water (4.184). When introduced at higher altitudes, barium will have a net effect of increasing the temperature of the atmosphere. Ergo: it gets hot and dry.

Why would anyone want to do that to the earth? Ask the military: In 2025 (a familiar date), US aerospace forces plan to “own the weather” by “capitalizing on emerging technologies and focusing development of those technologies to war-fighting applications.”(The Weather as a Force Multiplier, August 1996). In a summary table, under the column “DEGRADE ENEMY FORCES”, among all the nasty options we find: “Precipitation Denial – Induce Drought”. The smoking gun, not surprisingly always sits on the rack in a Department of Defense pick up truck. Technicians working at the Tesla Center, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, in Dayton, Ohio, have positively identified aluminum, barium, polymer webs with melanin, ethylene glycol-based monoacrylates and other heavy metals used extensively for weather modification projects for years (R. Mike Castle).

What a wicked, tangled web it is – literally. And here’s where we find the other half of our sandwich: DYN-O-Gel. Sounds like a product Ronco might distribute, but it is actually the trade name for cross-linked aqueous polymer, US Patent 6,315,213 awarded two years ago to one Peter Cordani – when dispersed into a storm it forms a gelatinous substance which falls to the ground, “thus diminishing the clouds ability to rain.” Dial-O-Matic in the weather!

And if you took your Pocket Fisherman to Florida Bay last month, you would have probably caught some of those “gelatinous blobs floating in it and spider-weblike filaments.” In January, fishermen in the Bay of Mexico began to report on a zone of lifeless water, about the size of Lake Athabasca, they dubbed “black water”. By early April, divers off Key West found dead and dying sponges, a trail of devastation and no answers. Clearly, none of the baffled marine biologists read Woman’s World magazine: an article in the March 19 edition proudly announced that a Florida research firm had discovered “a powder that will give you perfect weather every day,” and that in a top-secret test, this weather wonder drug was scattered over a storm by military planes. The company spokesman: Peter Cordani. The product: DYN-O-Gel. The Spin: it will “protect the lives of millions, but it’ll protect your leisure time, too.”

The most plausible explanation for “black water”: a recent real world test on a hurricane released enough Gel into the atmosphere to kill everything in the sea below. What goes up, must come down. So what about humans breathing in this miracle product? Mike Castle explains how these fine acrylic acrylate powders will suck all the moisture from your lungs, sticking the insides together – in two words: “extremely toxic”. Not advised.

Mr. Yuk take cover! The scientists are playing God but there are no environmental impact assessments for these compounds or any other kinds of weather manipulation chemistry. So why are they being sprayed into our skies?

Look Up! Connect the Dots. Follow the Patents. Smell the Air. Taste the Water. Control the Spin. Tell Everyone. The Truth is Copyright Free.

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What in the World Are They Spraying? Part II

by on Mar.24, 2010, under What are they?

Could Aluminum, Barium and Other Substances From Stratospheric Aerosol Geo-Engineering Programs be Destroying Eco-Systems around the World?

What in the World Are They Spraying? Part II ChemtrailsFrontSmoke

FLASHBACK: What In The World Are They Spraying? Part 1

Michael J. Murphy
Prison Planet.com
Wednesday, March 24, 2010

What would you do if you were told that toxic substances being sprayed into the sky are falling to the ground and decimating eco-systems around the world?   This very claim, made by concerned citizens outside the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) meeting last month in San Diego, sparked my interest to investigate further.

The AAAS meeting hosted several top geo-engineering scientists who gathered to discuss the “plausibility” of implementing various geo-engineering programs throughout the world.  One of the options addressed was the stratospheric aerosol geo-engineering (SAG) , AKA  chemtrail program,  where scientists discussed the “plausibility” of spraying aerosol aluminum, barium and other particles into the sky to block the sun as a means to “reduce” the Earth’s temperature.   When asked specifically about the potential risks associated with using aluminum in the program as an aerosol, scientists replied by stating that they have not studied much about the risks associated with aluminum and added that something terrible could be found tomorrow that they haven’t looked at.   When probed further about the deployment of existing aerosol programs, the scientists stated that no aerosol spraying programs have been deployed to date.

The concerned citizens I met outside the meeting were claiming quite the opposite.  They came in protest after witnessing airplanes that they believe are regularly spraying aerosols into the upper-part of the sky.  Many from this group have tested and found extremely high levels of aluminum, barium and other substances in their soil, rain, water and snow.  Ironically, the substances that they reported finding are the same substances the scientists are “considering” implementing in the various aerosol spraying programs discussed at the meeting.  They also believe that these substances are leading to the destruction of eco-systems and are coming from already deployed SAG programs.   Due to the severity of this issue and my desire to know the truth, I was led to Shasta County in the Northern part of California to investigate not only the claims of what is being reported in the sky, but also claims of what is in the rain, water, snow and soil from what many residents are saying is the result of SAG programs.

The first stop on this trip led me to Dane Wigington’s beautiful 2000 acre property overlooking Lake Shasta.  As we toured his breath-taking land, he pointed to multiple trails that blanketed the sky.  He claimed the trails are present on most days above Northern California.   Wigington referred to this as a “moderate spraying day”.  Like many other residents in Shasta County, Wigington moved to the area to get away from the heavy pollution of Southern California that he grew up with as a child.  His dreams of living off the land and becoming one with nature are now coming to a grinding halt as he is focusing his time and energy on the issue of geo-engineering.

Wigington became concerned about SAG when he began to notice dramatic changes in the solar power that he uses to supply his home and property.  Owner of one of the largest residential solar systems in Northern California, he began to notice very high declines in solar power.  It can be decreased by as much as 60 percent on what he calls “heavy spraying days”.   Wigington said, “The trails are literally blocking the sun”.   He also went on to say that he regularly samples the fine dust layers on top of his solar panels and other outdoor surface areas and frequently finds very high levels of aluminum and barium.  Wigington believes that these are a product of SAG programs.

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At the same time as finding decreased solar power, Wigington also began to witness dramatic changes on his property as the trees, grass, insects and wildlife started dying.  This led him to get his first rain test just four years ago.  The results were shocking as they found aluminum levels at 7 ug/l or 7 parts per billion.  Although aluminum can be found around the world in smaller quantities, geo-hydrologists told him that this number was quite high.  Since that time, he has had aluminum tests escalate as high as 50,000 percent to 3,400ug/l.  That is literally toxic rain.  These results prompted him to get additional pH tests from two USDA soil scientists which yielded more shocking results.  The pH of the soil was 6.6 in one area and 7.4 in another.  This is over 11 times the normal alkalinity of the soil which should be in the range of 5.0 to 5.5.  It is important to note the tests were taken in the forest far removed from any highway or industry.

When asked what these changes can do to the ecosystem, Wigington replied by saying that it is devastating.   He went on to say, “if this continues, we can only expect to see things get much worse.  Not only are we seeing our trees dying here, but also a major decline in our wildlife and fish”.  As a matter of fact, Wigington stated that according to The National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, the salmon run, once seen in abundance in this area has declined from 769,868 in 2002 to 39,530 in 2009.  That is over a 90 percent decline.  Amazingly enough, this decline started occurring about the same period of time when residents began to see a dramatic increase in what they believe to be SAG programs.  Wigington’s efforts to get these issues and test results addressed has been largely ignored by government agencies and officials.

After a closer look at Wigington’s property, my initial awe of the beauty and breath taking views led to sadness, frustration and anger over the contamination that is literally destroying the eco-system.  This led me to investigate further by seeking an expert in biology.  I packed up the car and headed north to the breathtaking town of Mt. Shasta.   Mt. Shasta has been known for its beauty, clean air and as being the source of water for some bottled water companies.  Many travel from around the world to mountain climb and vacation in this beautiful part of Western America.

Francis Mangels, BS in Forestry, Masters in zoology and a retired soil conservationist and wildlife biologist who worked for the U.S. Forest Service for over thirty five years, welcomed me into his beautiful home in the town of Mt. Shasta to discuss the “hidden” crisis that is occurring.  Mangels alerted me to the rapid decline of fish in the nearby rivers and streams.  Mangels brought me to a nearby creek that had an abundant supply of fish just a few years ago.  Because the primary diet of the fish in the creek is aquatic insects, he performed a standard sample method to measure the amount of insects present.  The samples he had performed before the alleged aerosol spraying campaign had yielded an average of 1000 aquatic insects.  Our sample yielded only 31. This is over a 96% decline from samples taken just a few years ago.  Mangels stated that because the fish live off of the insects, they are literally starving.  This rapid decline is likely due to changes in the chemistry of the water.  The only changes that Mangels is aware of are the dramatic increases of aluminum, barium and strontium which he believes is from SAG programs.

We also took time to test the pH of nearby soil and snow which contained over 10 times the alkalinity of the normal pH.  Mangels has evidence that this drastic change in pH is also due to the massive increases of aluminum.  He stated that forests, fields and farm ecologies thrive in acidic soils.  Aluminum acts as a buffer that increases alkalinity and can decimate ecologies in large amounts.  Mangels also pointed out that snow on Mt. Shasta was tested and sent to the Environmental Protection Agency (E.P.A.) who found results that contained 61,100 ug/l or parts per billion of aluminum and 83 ug/l of barium.   The normal amount of aluminum in the snow at Mt. Shasta is 0.5 ug/l.  Drinking water allowable is 50ug/l.  That means that the snow on Mt. Shasta has tested at 1200 times more poisonous than water standards allow for aluminum.  Mangels said, “Mountain climbers that come from around the world are drinking the poisonous water from the snow on the mountain”.   Mangels went on to say that government action is required at just 1000 ug/l of detected aluminum.  Although he alerted several government agencies of these findings, no governmental action has been taken to date.

Mengels brought me to several other locations around the town of Mt. Shasta where he tested the soil, rain, water and snow that also yielded tests that revealed the pH to be over ten times the normal alkalinity.  He went on to say that these types of changes in soil, water and snow are very uncommon except in other areas around the world where people have been witnessing what many believe to be spraying from SAG programs.  Mengels also stated that these changes have produced an “ecological crisis” and will have horrible consequences if continued.  Mengels said, “Losses to our economy will be incredible and are on their way as we speak.  Tree growth will be decreased which will result in the loss of logging jobs.   It is also causing the decline of naturally occurring plant and grass growth that occurs in the normally acidic soils of grazing pastures, resulting in the demise of our grazing industry, fishing industry, and worst of all, basic agriculture in Northern California.”

What is amazing is that these tests and many others throughout the world are largely being ignored by the very governmental entities that are required to address them.   Some politicians, like Mt. Shasta City Council member Ed Valenzuela may choose to ignore the issue. Valenzuela was made aware of the mass contamination at a city council meeting where he stated that the city did not want to sample the water for aluminum because the request was a “can of worms” that would, “open a Pandora’s box” that the city would have to pay for.  Although several local citizens volunteered to pay the $22.00 cost of the test at an EPA lab, both Republican Committee Chairman Russ Porterfield, and Valenzuela voted no to having the water tested.  The mayor Stearns wanted the test, but was overruled by a 3-2 vote.   This response is not uncommon as Mengels has presented this issue and his scientific data to over 15 local and federal agencies including Senator Feinstein and Senator Boxer’s office.  To date he has received no response or action.

Is it a coincidence that the substances found in the rain, snow and soil in this region and around the world match the exact substances that scientists are “considering” implementing in various geo-engineering campaigns throughout the world?  If not, then why have agencies and officials largely ignored these findings that are destroying our planet’s eco-system?   Could it be that officials are fearful of exposing a massive cover-up of a world-wide ecological crime?  Or is it the belief that this issue is simply too large and too complicated a problem for them to tackle?  Whatever the reason for this ignorance, we need to demand that our questions and shocking test results get addressed not only in Shasta County, but in every part of the world.  Our future on this planet is dependent on this issue being addressed.

Because this movement has come under attack from those who appear to be protecting the many political and corporate interests associated with SAG, it is essential that all of us around the world get involved by testing the rain, snow, soil and various outdoor surfaces and reporting the results to our elected officials and local environmental agencies.  We must also reach out and educate all those involved with SAG who might be unaware of the environmental implications associated with their programs.  Testing for pH changes and metals is simple and can be performed almost anywhere at a nominal price.  Simple testing instructions and more information about geo-engineering programs can be found on the internet at www.geoengineeringwatch.org .   Biologist Francis Mengels can be contacted by e-mail at bioguy311@sbcglobal.net for more information on this issue, the tests he has performed and suggestions on testing procedures.  Please take action by testing, reporting and demanding answers on this ever so important issue.  Both nature and humanity depend on it.  For more information, please contact me at whtagft@hotmail.com or visit my blog: http://truthmediaproductions.blogspot.com/ .

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The not-so-secret ingredient: Stadis 450 (dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid, barium salt)

by on Feb.16, 2009, under What are they?

DRAFT FEB 09 – Please check http://chemtrails.cc/ for latest revision.

PDF version

The most commonly used commercial turbine jet fuels today are named JET-A, JET-A1, and JET-B. All of these are kerosene type fuels except JET-B which is a kerosene-naphtha blend for colder climates [1, 2]. JET-A is used internationally and JET-A1 is available only in the US. The US military primarily uses its own kerosene jet fuel, JP-8, which is similar to JET-A1 [11, 2].

A number of chemical additives are used in these fuels including corrosion inhibitors, temperature stabilizers, detergents, and static electricity dissipators. Static dissipators are of particular importance to atmospheric aerosol and environmental research, due to their metal content and their widespread use in commercial and military jet fuel [17, 8]. Octel Starreon Stadis® 450 is a static dissipator, comprised of dinonylnapthalene sulfonic acid and other organic solvents, and according to the product MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet), it contains two “trade secret” ingredients [18]. Stadis 450 is the only approved anti-static additive for use in Air Force aviation fuels, including JP-8, JP-5, JET-A1, and JET-B [9]. DuPont, the original manufacturer, reports having divested its production of Stadis 450 in September of 1994 to Octel Starreon LLC , now a subsidiary of Innospec Fuel Specialties. Innospec also manufactures another static dissipator additive called Statsafe®. However, according to Exxon Mobil, Stadis 450 continues to be the static dissipator of choice for commercial and military aviation [17].

… static dissipator additive is widely used in jet kerosene …. Stadis® 450 is the only additive currently manufactured for use in aviation turbine fuels approved by the major turbine and airframe manufacturers.

Although the “trade secret” ingredients are well protected by the manufacturer, a recent study contracted by the EPA [10] and other sources strongly imply that these ingredients are salts of barium and/or calcium. The EPA classifies this dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid, barium salt as a “HPV” (High Production Volume) chemical, meaning it is “produced or imported into the United States in quantities of 1 million pounds or more per year [12].” This same study reports that “Based on the available toxicity results, dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid, barium salt appears to be the most biologically active member of the [dinonylnaphthalene] category [10].”

It is hypothesized that jet exhaust aerosol [4] is responsible for cloud seeding, rainbow diffraction, and dichroism observed in persistent contrails [5]. While “skeptics” may dismiss the very existence of persistent contrails, the phenomenon is widespread and commonly accepted among atmospheric scientists [7]. The exact cause of aerosol cloud seeding has been the subject of endless debate, but it has been shown conclusively that the earth’s albedo, or its overall reflectivity, is increased by contrail aerosol (see chemtrails.cc sattelite imagery category).

In the 3 days after the attacks on Sept. 11, 2001 during which the FAA grounded all commercial aircraft in the US, a unique opportunity to study atmospheric aerosol presented itself. David J. Travis, University of Wisconsin found significant changes in surface temperature and presented his findings to the American Meteorological Society [6].

There are a number of byproducts of combustion of kerosene jet fuel and its additives, including water, carbon dioxide, soot, sulfuric and nitrous acid, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, and metal ions [3], although this is by no means a complete list. Carbon monoxide and aromatic hydrocarbons also result from incomplete combustion.

Aerosol and contrail formation processes in an aircraft plume and wake as a function of plume age and temperature [4].

Aerosol and contrail formation processes in an aircraft plume and wake as a function of plume age and temperature. (image courtesy GRID-Arendal)

Not surprisingly, UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) only makes casual mention of these metal particles, and fails to provide any information as to their role in atmospheric aerosol formation.

If one phenomenon gives away the presence of metals in the aerosol, it would be the large number of high altitude rainbows produced by contrail aerosol. Virtually unheard of prior to 1990, bright rainbows, sometimes referred to as “circumhorizon arcs” or more commonly, “chembows,” can be observed regularly wherever jet aircraft fly.

According to a patent issued to Hughes Aircraft Company for dispersing metallic aerosol into the stratosphere, particles may stay suspended for up to a year. Hughes Aircraft, a major US defense contractor [14, 15], has been bought and sold by other defense contractors such as Boeing and Raytheon in recent years.

Exeprt from United States Patent 5003186:

The particles may be seeded by dispersal from seeding aircraft; one exemplary technique may be via the jet fuel as suggested by prior work regarding the metallic particles. Once the tiny particles have been dispersed into the atmosphere, the particles may remain in suspension for up to one year.

To avoid making qualitative judgments, I will not belabor the point that the horizon has been consistently gray, anywhere near commercial airports, since at least the early 1990s. But it would appear that the metal aerosol is indeed being dispersed, and staying suspended. While corporate media generally claims there can be no further debate about climate change, there are thousands of respected scientists who dispute the notion that atmospheric CO2 is the primary cause, and take exception to the idea that human intervention is required to “correct” it. At least 400 of them have testified to this effect to the US Senate [16].

Critical thinkers must question whether, with such flimsy scientific evidence, controlling the climate is the true motivation behind this metal aerosol dispersal. A 10 mile thick blanket of metal aerosol may have other uses to the militaries of the world, particularly in the fields of surveillance, aircraft and missile guidance, radar ducting, and radio frequency weapons systems.


Citations

  1. http://www.csgnetwork.com/jetfuel.html
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jet_fuel
  3. GRID-Arendal in collaboration with United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/climate/ipcc/aviation/034.htm
  4. http://chemtrails.cc/2009/01/27/arkansas-news-report/
  5. http://chemtrails.cc/2009/01/25/what-are-chembows/
  6. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2002/05/52512
  7. http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/prrl/prrl9919.html
  8. DETAIL SPECIFICATION, TURBINE FUEL, AVIATION, KEROSENE TYPE, JP-8 (NATO F-34), NATO F-35, and JP-8+100 (NATO F-37) [pdf]. U.S. Army. Downloaded from http://www.hnd.usace.army.mil/stddgn/data%5C078_24_28%5CPreviews%5C15880.pdf
  9. AEF Fuels Management Pocket Guide [pdf]. U.S. Air Force. Downloaded from http://www.aflma.hq.af.mil/lgj/AEF_fules_book_2007_final.pdf
  10. High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program Test Plan and Data Review, Dinonylnaphthalene Category [pdf]. http://www.epa.gov/hpv/pubs/summaries/dinapcat/c15766tp.pdf
  11. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/systems/engines-fuel.htm
  12. http://www.epa.gov/hpvis/
  13. PermitApplicationReports200808-Marathon_Stadis_450.pdf Source: http://www.louisvilleky.gov/NR/rdonlyres/E20509AE-4D28-4603-83B3-B16A640C9D10/0/PermitApplicationReports200808.pdf
  14. Hughes Aircraft Company
  15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hughes_Aircraft
  16. Over 400 Prominent Scientists Disputed Man-Made Global Warming Claims in 2007. From http://epw.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=Minority.SenateReport
  17. Exxon Mobil World Jet Fuel Specifications with Avgas Supplement. From: http://www.exxonmobilaviation.com/AviationGlobal/Files/WorldJetFuelSpec2008_1.pdf
  18. Octel Starreon Stadis 450 MSDS
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Patent for seeding stratosphere with metal aerosol in jet fuel “to prevent global warming”

by on Feb.08, 2009, under What are they?

While I’m skeptical that atmospheric CO2 is the primary cause of “global warming,” or that our earth is even warming at all (coldest winter in 50 years this year, in north america and china), I do strongly believe the 10-20% increase in the earth’s albedo (reflectivity) caused by chemtrail aerosol will have a significant cooling effect.  Sunlight and water vapor are the primary driving forces of the earth’s surface temperature. CO2 makes up only .03% of our atmosphere (thats three-hundredths of a percent), and a tiny fraction of the primary greenhouse gas, water vapor.

-Qbit

United States Patent 5003186 [pdf]

Abstract:

A method is described for reducing atmospheric or global warming resulting from the presence of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere, i.e., from the greenhouse effect. Such gases are relatively transparent to sunshine, but absorb strongly the long-wavelength infrared radiation released by the earth. The method incudes the step of seeding the layer of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere with particles of materials characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity. Such materials include Welsbach materials and the oxides of metals which have high emissivity (and thus low reflectivities) in the visible and 8-12 micron infrared wavelength regions.

What is claimed is:

1. A method of reducing atmospheric warming due to the greenhouse effect resulting from a layer of gases in the atmosphere which absorb strongly near infrared wavelength radiation, comprising the step of dispersing tiny particles of a material within the gases’ layer, the particle material characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity or reflectivity, in that said material has high emissivities with respect to radiation in the visible and far infrared wavelength spectra, and low emissivity in the near infrared wavelength spectrum, whereby said tiny particles provide a means for converting infrared heat energy into far infrared radiation which is radiated into space.

2. The method of claim wherein said material comprises one or more of the oxides of metals.

3. The method of claim 1 wherein said material comprises aluminum oxide.

4. The method of claim 1 wherein said material comprises thorium oxide.

5. The method of claim 1 wherein said particles are dispersed by seeding the stratosphere with a quantity of said particles at altitudes in the range of seven to thirteen kilometers above the earth’s surface.

6. The method of claim 1 wherein the size of said particles is in the range of ten to one hundred microns.

7. The method of claim wherein said material comprises a refractory material.

8. The method of claim 1 wherein said material is a Welsbach material.

9. The method of claim 1 wherein the number of said dispersed particles per unit area in the particle layer is greater than or equal to 1/σabs 1, where 1 is the thickness of the particle layer and σabs is the absorption coefficient of the particles at the far infrared wavelengths.

10. A method for reducing atmospheric warming due to the greenhouse effect resulting from a greenhouse gases layer, comprising the following step:

seeding the greenhouse gases’ layer with a quantity of tiny particles of a material characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity or reflectivity, in that said materials have high emissivities in the visible and far infrared wavelength spectra and low emissivity in the near infrared wavelength spectrum,

whereby said particles are suspended within said gases’ layer and provide a means for converting radiative energy at near infrared wavelengths into radiation at the far infrared wavelengths, permitting some of the converted radiation to escape into space.
11. The method of claim 10 wherein said material comprises one or more of the oxides of metals.

12. The method of claim 10 wherein said material comprises aluminum oxide.

13. The method of claim 10 wherein said material is thorium oxide.

14. The method of claim 10 wherein said seeding is performed at altitudes in the range of seven to thirteen kilometers above the earth’s surface.

15. The method of claim 10 wherein said material comprises a refractory material.

16. The method of claim 10 wherein said particle size is in range of ten to one hundred microns.

17. The method of claim 10 wherein said material is a Welsbach material.

18. The method of claim 10 wherein the number of said dispersed particles per unit area in the particle layer is greater than or equal to 1/σabs 1, where 1 is the thickness of the particle layer and σabs is the absorption coefficient of the particles at the far infrared wavelengths.

Description:

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to a method for the reduction of global warming resulting from the greenhouse effect, and in particular to a method which involves the seeding of the earth’s stratosphere with Welsbach-like materials.

Global warming has been a great concern of many environmental scientists. Scientists believe that the greenhouse effect is responsible for global warming. Greatly increased amounts of heat-trapping gases have been generated since the Industrial Revolution. These gases, such as CO 2 , CFC, and methane, accumulate in the atmosphere and allow sunlight to stream in freely but block heat from escaping (greenhouse effect). These gases are relatively transparent to sunshine but absorb strongly the long-wavelength infrared radiation released by the earth.

Most current approaches to reduce global warming are to restrict the release of various greenhouse gases, such as CO 2 , CFC, and methane. These imply the need to establish new regulations and the need to monitor various gases and to enforce the regulations.

One proposed solution to the problem of global warming involves the seeding of the atmosphere with metallic particles. One technique proposed to seed the metallic particles was to add the tiny particles to the fuel of jet airliners, so that the particles would be emitted from the jet engine exhaust while the airliner was at its cruising altitude. While this method would increase the reflection of visible light incident from space, the metallic particles would trap the long wavelength blackbody radiation released from the earth. This could result in net increase in global warming.

It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a method for reduction of global warming due to the greenhouse effect which permits heat to escape through the atmosphere.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A method is disclosed for reducing atmospheric warming due to the greenhouse effect resulting from a greenhouse gases layer. The method comprises the step of seeding the greenhouse gas layer with a quantity of tiny particles of materials characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity or reflectivity, in that said materials have high emissivities in the visible and far infrared wavelength regions and low emissivity in the near infrared wavelength region. Such materials can include the class of materials known as Welsbach materials. The oxides of metal, e.g., aluminum oxide, are also suitable for the purpose. The greenhouse gases layer typically extends between about seven and thirteen kilometers above the earth’s surface. The seeding of the stratosphere occurs within this layer. The particles suspended in the stratosphere as a result of the seeding provide a mechanism for converting the blackbody radiation emitted by the earth at near infrared wavelengths into radiation in the visible and far infrared wavelength so that this heat energy may be reradiated out into space, thereby reducing the global warming due to the greenhouse effect.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

These and other features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description of an exemplary embodiment thereof, as illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 illustrates a model for the heat trapping phenomenon, i.e., the greenhouse effect.

FIG. 2 is a graph illustrating the intensity of sunlight incident on earth and of the earth’s blackbody radiation as a function of wavelength.

FIG. 3 is a graph illustrating an ideal emissivity versus wavelength function for the desired particle material.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

FIG. 1 shows a model for the heat-trapping (greenhouse effect) phenomenon. It is assumed that the greenhouse gases are concentrated at altitudes between y=0 (at some altitude Y 1 , above the earth’s surface) and y=1. Regardless of the sunshine reflected back into space, i 1 and i 2 denote the shortwavelength sunlight energies that are absorbed by the earth’s surface and the greenhouse gases, respectively. Available data shows that i 1 =0.45 i sol and i 2 =0.25 i sol , where i sol is the total flux from the sun. The short wavelength sunlight heats up the greenhouse gases and the earth surface, and this energy is eventually reradiated out in the long wavelength infrared region.

FIG. 2 is a graph illustrating the intensity of sunlight and the earth’s blackbody radiation as a function of wavelength. As illustrated, some 30% of the sunlight energy is in the near infrared region. The earth’s blackbody radiation, on the other hand, is at the far infrared wavelength.

Referring again to FIG. 1, I s , I + , I - , I g and I e represent the fluxes in the infrared wavelength region, where I s and I g are the fluxes reradiated by the greenhouse gases toward the sky and ground, respectively; I e is the flux reradiated by the earth; and I + and I - are fluxes within the gases radiating toward the space and ground, respectively. I + and I - are functions of y, e.g., I + (0) is the I + flux at y=0. Considering the principles of energy conservation and continuity at boundaries, the following relationships are obtained: I s =i 1 +i 2 (1) I s =I + (1)(1-R l ) (2) I - (1)=I + (1)R l (3) I + (0)=I - (0)R o +I e (1-R o ) (4) I g =I - (0)(1-R o )+I e R o (5) I e =I BB (T e )(1-R)+I g R (6) I e =i 1 +I g (7)

where R o , R l and R are the reflectivities at the y=0 and y=1 boundaries and at the earth’s surface. I BB (T e ) is the blackbody radiation flux at the earth’s temperature T e . Within the greenhouse gases’ layer, the energy equations are (dI + /dy)=I BB (T g )-αI + (8) -(dI - /dy)=I BB (T g )-αI - (9)

where I BB (T g ) is the blackbody radiation flux at the greenhouse gases’ temperature T g , and α is the absorption coefficient of the gases. The solutions of equations 8 and 9 are given by equations 10 and 11: I + (y)=(I BB /α)+Ce αy (10) I - (y)=(I BB /α)+De + αy (11)

To illustrate the effects of R o and R l on the green-house effect, the extreme case is considered wherein a high concentration of greenhouse gases has strong absorption in the infrared region; that is, for y=1, e - αl approaches 0. Then, using Equations 3 and 4, the relationships of Equations 12 and 13 are obtained. C=(I e -(I BB /α))(1-R o ) (12) D=0

From Equations 5 and 7, I e =i 1 +I - (0)(1-R o )+I e R o ,

or I e =(i 1 /(1-R o ))+(I BB /α). (14)

From Equations 2 and 1, I s =(I BB /α)(1-R l )=i 1 +i 2 ,

or (I BB /α)=(i 1 +i 2 )/(1-R l ). (15)

Combining Equations 14 and 15, the relationship of Equation 16 is obtained. I e =i 1 /(1-R o )+(i 1 +i 2 )/(1-R l )(16)

Finally, Equation 6 gives the blackbody radiation from the earth’s surface in terms of i 1 and i 2 and the three reflectivities: I e =I BB (T e )(1-R)+(I e -i 1 )R I BB (T e )=I e +(R/(1-R))i 1

or I BB (T e )=i 1 /(1-R o )+(i 1 +i 2 )/(1-R l )+(R/(1-R))i 1 (17)

To achieve a lower temperature of the earth, (considering i 1 , i 2 and R as constants), it is desirable to make R and R l as small as possible.

Known refractory materials have a thermal emissivity function which is strongly wavelength dependent. For example, the materials may have high emissivity (and absorption) at the far infrared wavelengths, high emissivity in the visible wavelength range, and very low emissivity at intermediate wavelengths. If a material having those emissivity characteristics and a black body are exposed to IR energy of equal intensity, the selective thermal radiator will emit visible radiation with higher efficiency (if radiation cooling predominates), i.e., the selective thermal radiator will appear brighter than the black body. This effect is known as the Welsbach effect and is extensively used in commercial gas lantern mantles.

Welsbach materials have the characteristic of wavelength-dependent emissivity (or reflectivity). For example, thorium oxide (ThO 2 ) has high emissivities in the visible and far IR regions but it has low emissivity in the near IR region. So, in accordance with the invention, the layer of greenhouse gases is seeded with Welsbach or Welsbach-like materials which have high emissivities (and thus low reflectivities) in the visible and 8-12 micrometer infrared regions, which has the effect of reducing R o and R l while introducing no effect in the visible range.

A desired material for the stratospheric seeding has a reflection coefficient close to unity for near IR radiation, and a reflection coefficient close to zero (or emissity close to unity) for far IR radiation. FIG. 3 is a graph illustrating an ideal emissivity versus wavelength function for the desired material. Another class of materials having the desired property includes the oxides of metals. For example, aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) is one metal oxide suitable for the purpose and which is relatively inexpensive.

It is presently believed that particle sizes in the ten to one hundred micron range would be suitable for the seeding purposes. Larger particles would tend to settle to the earth more quickly.

The particles in the required size range can be obtained with conventional methods of grinding and meshing.

It is believed that the number of particles n d per unit area in the particle layer should be defined by Equation 18: n d 1≥1/σ abs (18)

where 1 is the thickness of the particle layer and σ abs is the absorption coefficient of the particles at the long IR wavelengths. One crude estimate of the density of particles is given by Equation (19): n d 1≥(cmw)/(4πe 2 ) (19)

where c is the speed of light, m is the average particle mass, e is the electron charge, and w is the absorption line width in sec -1 .

The greenhouse gases are typically in the earth’s stratosphere at an altitude of seven to thirteen kilometers. This suggests that the particle seeding should be done at an altitude on the order of 10 kilometers. The particles may be seeded by dispersal from seeding aircraft; one exemplary technique may be via the jet fuel as suggested by prior work regarding the metallic particles. Once the tiny particles have been dispersed into the atmosphere, the particles may remain in suspension for up to one year.

It is understood that the above-described embodiment is merely illustrative of the possible specific embodiments which may represent principles of the present invention. Other arrangements may readily be devised in accordance with these principles by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention.

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